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Hundreds of Tutsi had been killed in hospitals and various health centers in Rwanda.  They were heartlessly massacred and it was prepared by some of the doctors, nurses and other staff in hospitals and clinics’ leadership. After the Genocide, many of those doctors who committed genocide escaped justice.

For some of them, the Prosecutor General's Office has issued search warrants for them to be brought to justice and are being searched by Interpol. Sadly, when they arrived abroad, they disguised themselves and some continued their medical work in the countries where they fled and yet they had committed the genocide.


As of May 14, 2020, we have informed you of doctors and nurses who were working in Butare town in Huye District, other hospitals, health centers and clinics in the Southern Province, Western Province, Northern Province and those in the Eastern Province.

In this document we highlight the role of some of the doctors, nurses and staff working in hospitals, health structures as well as international organizations in the City of Kigali.


The May 17, 2020 article concludes the role of doctors and nurses who were in charge of health care but chose to be killers at a larger scale, highlights the seriousness of the Genocide against the Tutsi. There was no single place for Tutsi to hide, nor was there any category of Hutu population without people who participated in the genocide against the Tutsi.


Educated people and those who were serving in administrative structures are the ones who have been prominent in planning and carrying out the genocide against the Tutsi. In the rebuilding process that Rwanda has been pursuing for twenty-six (26) years, it is important that all Rwandans work together and feel that it is the responsibility of everyone.








I.                   DOCTORS


1.      The Genocide perpetrators in political positions


whether in the City of Kigali particularly or elsewhere in the country in general, not all doctors have committed genocide in hospitals and clinics only. Some were in the higher political positions, where they were involved in the planning, promotion, issuance of instructions and equipment to carry out the genocide and all other activities aimed at the extermination of Tutsi.


Among the key contributors were: Dr Sindikubwabo Theodore who was the President of the Republic, Dr Butera Jean Baptiste who was the leader of the extremist party affiliated with the MRND called Parti Ecologique (PECO) founded on 30/11/1991, now living in Belgium.  There was also Dr Bizimungu Casimir who was the Minister of Health in the criminal Government, Dr Andre Rwamakuba who was the Minister of Primary and Secondary Education in the criminal government. Both were acquitted by the Arusha Tribunal.


There are also doctors who committed genocide while they were leaders of health regions in the prefectures. Some of them when they arrived abroad, they continued to campaign for the genocide ideology, including supporting rebellious groups like FDLR, FDU-Inkingi, RUD-URUNANA and others.


For example: Dr Jacques Gasekurume from Kiziguro who led the FDU-Inkingi in the Netherlands, was also confirmed to have been an extremist since 1973 while studying at Petit Seminaire de Zaza; Dr Déogratias Twagirayezu, who fled to the Netherlands after the genocide and represents the RUD-Urunana terrorist group in the entire Europe.


There was another group of doctors who fled to Zambia and helped with the establishment of FDLR and continued to provide assistance which included Dr Ignace Gashongore who was a doctor at Ndola General Hospital and was later employed in a project sponsored by the University of Maryland, School of Medicine of the fight against AIDS. Dr. Francois Niyonsenga who was the director of health region of Gitarama and Dr Francois Nkurikiyinka.


When a doctor supports terrorist groups such as the FDLR, FDU-INKINGI, RUD URUNANA and all others that are founded on genocide ideology and continues medical profession, it is a breach of the oath of every doctor who starts medical profession.





2.      Dr Gakire Marcel

He was born in Nyarugenge District - Nyamirambo at a place called Gatare in 1948. He first worked for CHK but in 1994 he worked for the Belgian Red Cross in Kigali. He was a public health expert.


He was tried by several Gacaca Courts until on 27/12/2009 he was sentenced by the Gacaca Court of Nyakabanda, Nyarugenge District, to life imprisonment with special provisions for the crime of rape, mutilation of women and girls’ genitals, complicity in the rape of women and girls and mutilation of their genitals. He is being held in Mageragere Prison.


3.      Dr Rugina Nzeyimana Emmanuel


He is from the former Ruhengeri prefecture. He was a lecturer at the University of Rwanda in the department of Medicine but later worked at Kigali Hospital (CHUK) as a specialist doctor. At the University of Butare, he was generally known to have sworn that no Tutsi would get pass marks in his courses and some Abanyenduga that he considered as Tutsi failed his courses like Tutsi.

While working in Kigali, the government trusted him to work with a group of military observers who monitored the fighting between Habyarimana's government forces and the RPF-Inkotanyi called (Groupe d'Observateurs Militaires Neutres-GOMN / Neutral Military Observers Group-NMOG). This group was approved by the African Union (OUA). He was given the above mentioned job with additional responsibility to kill the RPF Inkotanyi soldiers.


On November 20, 2009, the Gacaca Court of Butare Ville Sector sentenced Dr Rugina to life imprisonment with special provisions after he was convicted of genocide crime composed of persecution of Tutsi students and making them fail due to hatred.  He was also convicted of holding genocide planning meetings to kill Tutsi students at his home who lived in CYIZA Home, attending genocide planning meetings at CHUB, handing over Tutsi patients to be killed by ESO soldiers, encouraging students to kill their colleagues through meetings.  He lives in the United States of America (USA).


4.      Dr Rutegesha Misago Antoine

He was born in Shyogwe (Rukaza) in the former Nyamabuye commune in 1957, currently in Muhanga District. In 1979, he graduated from the Groupe Scolaire Officiel de Butare (GSOB), department of medical assistants and worked at Ntyazo Health Center, currently in Nyanza District, until 1982 when he went to continue his studies at the University of Butare in the Department of Public Health situated in the ESTM (Ecole Supérieure des techniques Medicales). He continued his education in Egypt and returned in 1986.

Rutegesha Misago Antoine is best known as a Hutu extremist rather than a doctor because he was one of the ten founders of the Coalition pour la Défense de la République – CDR of the Hutu extremists at the meeting held in Village Urugwiro on 22/02/1992. RUTEGESHA was accompanied by Bucyana Martin, Nahimana Théoneste, Mugimba Jean Baptiste, Uwamariya Béatrice, Higiro Céléstin, Nzaramba Céléstin, Akimanizanye Emmanuel, Hitimama Athanase and Simbizi Stanislas. RUTEGESHA was the first vice president of the CDR at the national level.

In 1994, he worked for CARITAS International in Kigali but was later appointed the sous prefect in Gitarama during the genocide, and kept the post of first vice president of CDR at the national level.

After the genocide he fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo, he became a military and was ranked as “major”. He left from Congo forests and went to teach at the North Kivu Medical School, where he was arrested and sent to Rwanda in 2010.

He was tried by the Gitarama Gacaca Court in 2010 and sentenced to life in prison for genocide crime committed at his home area of Shyogwe and leading the massacre in Gitarama Town. He is being held in Rwamagana Prison.

5.      Dr Bajinya Vincent


He worked at ONAPO and was born in 1952. He is being prosecuted by the Rwandan prosecution for his role in the genocide, especially the killings that took place in the Rugenge sector, now in Nyarugenge District, where he set up and led a roadblock to kill Tutsi. He fled to the United Kingdom.


Kigali Hospital (CHK)


1)      Dr Ntezayabo Benoit


He has been working in a maternity ward since 1977 after working in a surgical ward. He was a strong member of the MRND until the CDR came and he immediately joined it. He was a brother to Col. Joseph MURASAMPONGO who also gave him weapons and they were stored in the hospital. While monitoring the killings at the hospital, he worked closely with Dr Col Baransalitse Laurent who was a doctor at Kanombe Military Hospital.

On 21/06/2008, the Gacaca Court of Nyarugenge Sector convicted him of genocide crime carried out in CHUK and his accomplices with other murderers of CHUK including nurses Ndayambaje Stefaniya and Bananeza Marie Josée. The court sentenced him to 30 years in prison in absentia. He fled to Canada.


2)      Dr Habyarimana Théoneste


He was a cruel doctor during the Genocide. On 19/03/2009, the Gacaca Court of Rugenge Sector, Nyarugenge District, convicted him of genocide crime in absentia, composed of raping Marie Jeanne Mukarango and killing her afterwards, the death of Murwanyashyaka Antoine which took place on 12/05/1994 and to lead the patrols and roadblocks. The court sentenced him to life imprisonment with special provisions.


3)      Dr Cyimana Augustin

He was an expert in gynaecology. He committed genocide in CHUK, especially by handing over Tutsi to soldiers and the Interahamwe to kill them, and continued at his home in Gitarama where he collaborated with the Bourgmestre of Mugina Martin Ndamage to kill Tutsi.


After the genocide he fled to Zambia, became one of the founders of the FDLR in Zambia and led it. When he arrived in Zambia he worked at Lusaka Hospital, where he still lives.


4)      Dr Munyakazi Christophe


He was born from Cyangugu and was a paediatrician. He was a member of the CDR. During the genocide, he was always pointing out Tutsi who were hiding in paediatric ward. Where he lived in Rugenge in Kigali City, he was one of the leaders who ordered the hunting and killing of Tutsi and provided weapons. Among those he betrayed to death were Kanakintama, the wife of Vincent Mugiraneza, their three children (03) and their house helper Rutayisire.

He was sentenced by the Gacaca Assembly of Rugenge B to thirty (30) years imprisonment on 03/11/2007.


5)      Dr Munyarukato Norbert

He is also from Cyangugu and was a member of the CDR working in surgery. He caused death to children who had taken refuge at his colleague’s place Dr Jules Kabahizi in the emergency room and others who were hiding in the maternity ward, including the one he shot himself.


6)      Dr Batungwanayo Jean


He was a Burundian doctor and elder brother of a politician called Nyangoma Leonard. His cruelty and hatred for Tutsi was evident after the death of former Burundian President Ndadaye Melchior in October 1993. For him, it was time to refuse to treat Tutsi. After the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, he moved to Belgium and later went to the Congolese forests to provide assistance to the FDLR and Burundian refugees in Tanzania. He is said to have died in 2000.


7)      Dr Ntawuruhunga Juvénal


He was born in Nyange Sector in Ngororero District in 1956. In addition to persecuting Tutsi working in CHUK since the liberation struggle started in 1990. In 1994 he led a roadblock in front of his home in Gikondo. He died at the same roadblock while he was with soldiers and Interahamwe fighting with Inkotanyi from Rebero hill.


Kanombe Military Hospital


1)      Dr Col. Baransaritse Laurent

He was the director general of Kanombe Military Hospital. He was a member of the National Genocide Organizing Committee in collaboration with Colonel Bagosora Theoneste, Colonel Léonard Nkundiye, Major Protais Mpiranya, Major Aloys Ntabakuze and others.

He is said to have died in the congolese forests. During the genocide Col. Baransaritse Laurent has been seen leading and following up on the killing of Tutsi at CHUK. He commanded that some CHUK staff be given guns and store them in the hospital. He worked closely with Dr Ntezayabo Benoit and the nurse Ndayambaje Stefaniya.


2)      Dr Col. Mugemanyi Froduald

He is from Mudasomwa Commune in Gikongoro, Nyamagabe District. He was involved in the genocide in Kanombe. While in exile in Congo, he was one of the founders of a rebellious group aimed at perpetuating the genocide and attacking Rwanda. He was shot dead among infiltrators in the former Nyarutovu commune.


King Faycal Hospital


Dr Ndarihoranye Jean-Baptiste: He was born in the former Giciye Commune (Gisenyi). He was the Minister of Health in the Government inaugurated on 30/12/1991 led by the Prime Minister Sylvestre Nsanzimana.


During the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, Dr Ndarihoranye was the director general of King Faycal Hospital in Kacyiru. He was assigned to lead the hospital as a separate MRND and CDR property as the Arusha Accords had given RPF-Inkotanyi the Ministry of Health.


He was driven by a CDR member Ingabire Alphonse Marie alias Katumba, who later became the hospital's chief of logistics. Dr Ndarihoranye caused death to many patients and continued the massacre in Gisenyi. He fled to Belgium.




1)      Murengezi Gabriel


He is the son of Mbyaliyehe Gabriel, a former businessman in Kigali City and a councilor of Nyarugenge who was charged with genocide crime. Murengezi was born in Kigali city in 1968 and studied at the Kigali Medical Assistants School (EAM) in 1990. He worked in SODEPHAR pharmacy and at RAMJI.

He led a large Interahamwe gang that ravaged the City of Kigali, especially in the "Quartier commercial" and its surrounding areas called "sagesse". He was a prominent interahamwe carrying out many atrocities, including rape of Tutsi girls.

He was arrested on 12/10/1994 and moved to Kigali Prison (Prison Centrale de Kigali / PCK). On 06/01/1995, the Gikondo Gacaca Assembly sentenced him to life imprisonment with special provisions, and later in 2010 Rwamagana Assembly sentenced him to life imprisonment.

2)      Ndayambaje Sitefaniya

She was a nurse at Kigali General Hospital (CHUK). She was born in Gihinga in Rutsiro District in 1944 and was the sister of Colonel Rwagafirita Petero Selesitini’s wife who had been the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Gendarmery for a long time. She was a leader of nurses at CHUK (Nursing) and a member of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC).

She was involved in the killings of his fellow Tutsi staff and teachers at the Lycée Notre Dame des Citeaux School in Kigali. she worked with soldiers who protected CHUK and gave them lists of Tutsi to be killed. She was convicted by Gacaca for the complicity in making lists of Tutsi to be killed, mocking Tutsi and yet she knew they were being hunted, participating in raids that hunted Tutsi in CHUK, killing a girl who had been left in CHUK by nuns. On 07/10/2009, the Nyarugenge Sector Court sentenced her to thirty (30) years imprisonment and she died in prison.


3)      Bananeza Marie Josée


She is from Bulinga Commune (Gitarama). She caused death to Tutsi patients, CHUK staff and those who had taken refuge there. Along with Mukakabera Edith and Philomene Mukandamage were part of a team that went around all the beds of patients and ask for their identity cards and thus preparing a list to be given to the soldiers.




4)       Karuhije Emmanuel


He is from Gisenyi prefecture. He also worked at CHUK as a radiography technician. He caused death to many Tutsi at Kigali Hospital and continued to kill at his home in Gisenyi. He was sentenced to life imprisonment.


Kayanga health center, Gasabo


Kamanzi Etienne

He worked at Kayanga Health Center, in Gasabo District. He was born in the former Gikomero commune in 1953, nowadays in Gasabo District. He was a nurse who studied at Groupe Scolaire Officiel de Butare where he graduated from high school in 1976.

Prior to working in Gikomero commune he worked at Karama Health Center in Bugesera and Rubona health center in Rwamagana District. In 1994 he fled to Muhondo (Shyorongi) and did not return to his place of work but in January 1995 he was arrested and imprisoned for genocide crimes. He was sentenced by the Jabana Assembly in 2005 to life in prison for his role in the Kayanga health Center and its surroundings massacre. He is detained in Rwamagana Prison.

Butamwa Heath center, Nyarugenge

Dusabe Tereza

During 1994, she was a midwife at the Butamwa health Center in Nyarugenge District and she is the mother of Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza. Dusabe Tereza collaborated with the Bourgmestre of Butamwa Commune to prepare and chair all the meetings that planned to start the attacks on Tutsi.

The testimony from the Mageragere Gacaca Court showed that Dusabe Tereza was nicknamed "the doctor of death" for her cruelty. She first killed Tutsi pregnant women and then killed babies by hitting them on the wall. In 2009, Gacaca Courts sentenced her to life in prison after convicting her with the torture of Tutsi women who were being treated at the Butamwa Health Center.

Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza, who calls herself a politician, but has in fact been convicted by the courts of serious crimes, including genocide ideology, arrived in Rwanda in 2010 from the Netherlands and was interviewed by The East African to comment on the sentences imposed by Gacaca courts and Ingabire replied that she did not trust Gacaca, because they were run by incompetent people. She added that she only trusted the judges of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha.

When she was asked about the Genocide against the Tutsi and the role of her mother as she had been convicted of killing Tutsi, Ingabire laughed and replied to the journalist, "16 years have passed and people should have gone to Democracy.”



The gravity of the crimes on this list shows that among those who were in charge of treating people betrayed the standards of their profession. It also shows how the genocide against the Tutsi became a supernatural crime where doctors gave up their profession of life protection and chose to kill.

As we commemorate the 26th anniversary of the Genocide against the Tutsi and the killing of more than a million Tutsi, the CNLG calls on the countries hosting these doctors and nurses who committed genocide, and has given them the job of treating people, to suspend them from the medical profession and to remove them from the list of doctors and nurses who are allowed to practice medicine and to be brought to justice as soon as possible.


CNLG commends all those who continue to take part in this international justice campaign so that the perpetrators of the Genocide who fled the country can be held accountable for their actions.




Done at Kigali on May 17, 2020



Dr BIZIMANA Jean Damascène

Executive Secretary

National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide (CNLG)